What are stimulants ?
Stimulants is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those that increase activity of the central nervous system and the body. Thus, these are drugs that are pleasurable and invigorating, or drugs that have sympathomimetic effects. Stimulants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines as well as without a prescription as performance-enhancing or recreational drugs.
These drugs can temporarily elevate alertness, mood and awareness. Some stimulant drugs are legal and widely used. Many stimulants can also be addicting. Stimulants share many commonalities, but each has unique properties and mechanisms of action.
The most frequently prescribed stimulants as of 2013 were lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, and amphetamine. Prescription stimulants come in tablets or capsules. When abused, they are swallowed, injected in liquid form or crushed and snorted.
Uses of Stimulants
Stimulants enhance the activity of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Common effects may include increased alertness, awareness, wakefulness, endurance, productivity, and motivation, arousal. Other effects concern locomotion, heart rate, and blood pressure, and a diminished desire for food and sleep. Use of stimulants may cause the body to reduce significantly its production of natural body chemicals that fulfill similar functions.
Until the body reestablishes its normal state, once the effect of the ingested stimulant has worn off the user may feel depressed, lethargic, confused, and miserable. This is referred to as a "crash", and may provoke reuse of the stimulant. Also, they are widely used in obesity and weight loss treatments.
What are Opioids ?Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects. Generally, they are primarily used for pain relief, including anesthesia. Also, they are used for suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder. Other uses like reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, suppressing opioid induced constipation can not be undermined. Extremely potent opioids such as carfentanil are only approved for veterinary use. Opioids are also frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal.